Obesity | Batwing Arms | Elephant leg / Muscular calf | Straight Body/no Waist/Big Waist | Out of Shape Body


Obesity results from the excessive accumulation of fat in the body due to a persistent imbalance between calorie intake and expenditure. Normal fat content ranges from 15-18% in males and 20-25% in females, with percentages typically increasing with age. Recognized as a disease by the WHO, obesity shares pathophysiological characteristics with many chronic conditions, highlighting its broader health implications beyond weight alone.

BMI 25-29.9 is considered as overweight; BMI ≥30 is considered as obese. 

Class l Obesity: 30.0-34.9 Class ll Obesity: 35.0-39.9 Class lll Obesity: ≥40.0 

* Body Mass Index, BMI, is a measurement of a person’s body fat based on their height and weight. BMI formula is weight ÷ height2 (kg/m2) .


Ideally, our daily calorie intake and usage should balance to provide the energy needed for daily activities. However, when calorie intake exceeds usage over an extended period, it leads to fat accumulation and obesity.

  1. Genetics: Obesity can be inherited, with around 20-40% of children born to obese parents prone to obesity due to genetic factors.
  2. Lifestyle Factors:
    • Food preference: Diets high in calories, sugar, and fried foods but low in vitamins and minerals can contribute to obesity and internal fat accumulation.
    • Overeating: Consuming more food than necessary, frequent snacking, and late-night eating can lead to obesity.
    • Unhealthy eating habits/dieting: Extreme diets or poor nutrient intake can hinder fat digestion and removal, promoting fat retention.
    • Sedentary lifestyle: Lack of exercise slows metabolism, reducing energy expenditure and promoting fat storage.
    • Other factors: Poor sleep patterns and excessive alcohol consumption can also contribute to obesity.
  3. Age: Basal metabolic rate decreases with age, particularly with reduced exercise, leading to a higher risk of obesity, commonly known as middle-age spread
  4. Stress: Stress triggers the release of cortisol, a hormone that increases appetite and promotes cravings for high-sugar, high-fat foods. Stress-induced hormonal imbalances can lead to increased fat storage and weight gain, especially in situations like mental stress, postpartum, menopause, and work pressure.

Obesity can be categorized into primary and secondary obesity. Primary obesity is primarily attributed to factors like genetics, sedentary lifestyle, poor dietary habits, and lack of exercise. On the other hand, secondary obesity is caused by medical conditions leading to weight gain, although it’s less common, accounting for less than 1% of obesity cases.

Primary obesity can develop at any age, with about half of obese adults experiencing obesity since childhood. Generally, weight gain should occur gradually. Rapid weight gain may indicate secondary obesity. Men and women tend to show different patterns of weight gain, with men accumulating weight primarily in the neck, trunk, and head, while women tend to gain weight in the abdomen, lower abdomen, breasts, and buttocks.

Batwing arms

Batwing arms, as their name implies, refer to arms exhibiting a resemblance to bat wings. This appearance results from an excess of adipose tissue stored in the triceps region, located on the inner aspect of the upper arm.

These batwing arms are colloquially referred to as “farewell” arms due to the swinging motion of the arm fat observed when waving goodbye.

  • Lack of arm exercises
  • Poor lymphatic drainage of the upper limbs
  • Bad sitting posture
  • Genetic influence
Elephant leg / Muscular calf

Every individual possesses a certain amount of fat in their legs, although the quantity differs from person to person. Some individuals may choose running as a means to eliminate this fat; however, this exercise regimen may unexpectedly lead to the development of muscular calves. Conversely, adopting a sedentary lifestyle exacerbates the situation. What is the most effective method to diminish this persistent fat on the legs?

“Elephant leg” denotes a leg in which the thigh and calf are approximately equivalent in size (larger), resulting in a lack of leg definition and a plumper appearance.

Muscular calves are characterized by substantial calf muscles displaying defined and robust muscle characteristics, presenting an absence of disproportionate leg contour.


Abnormal secretion of estrogen
Bad sitting posture | Sitting with legs crossed
Sitting down in the office all day / Sedentary lifestyle
Bad walking posture/walking in heels frequently
Lack stretching exercises for legs

  1. Accumulated fat typed thick legs (elephant legs)
    For bulky calves resulting from fat accumulation, there is a substantial layer of adipose tissue accumulated beneath the skin, followed by the calf muscles. Such calves typically create the impression of a plump body.
    “Elephant legs” frequently manifest in individuals who are obese.
  2. Muscular typed thick legs
    Typically found in calves muscles that have been excessively utilized, this type of bulky legs encounter greater obstacles compared to fat-induced bulky legs. Once developed, fat can be eliminated, whereas muscle can only be reduced but not entirely eradicated.
  3. Combined typed (fat and muscular) thick legs
    This combined type of bulky legs presents a prevalent leg issue. It encompasses the challenges of both fat accumulation and well-developed calf muscles, sometimes accompanied by edema. When you pinch the calf, it may feel firm, leading one to mistake the hardness for muscle. However, what you’re actually feeling is not muscle, but rather the accumulation and hardening of fat due to prolonged inactivity.
Straight Body/no Waist/Big Waist

An overabundance of adipose tissue gathering at the waist area results in the emergence of a large waist/lack of waist/rectangular body shape. A large waist can be identified by an elevated waist circumference, prominent abdominal protrusion, accumulation of fat around the waist area, and a waist-to-hip ratio nearing.

  1. Besides genetic factors, the primary contributing factor to a large waist is primarily the excessive accumulation of adipose tissue. Fat tends to deposit around the waist region, forming stubborn fat. Additionally, as body weight increases, waist measurements naturally expand.
  2. Another significant factor is a sedentary lifestyle coupled with unhealthy dietary habits. Continual consumption of unbalanced and excessive calories leads to fat accumulation throughout the body, including the waist area.
  3. Moreover, when attempting weight loss through gym workouts, it’s crucial to consider posture and training methods. Incorrect posture during exercise can inadvertently target the oblique muscles, potentially increasing waist size.
Out of Shape Body

After diligently managing one’s weight it may rapid fat loss often results in sagging and loose skin, as well as an overall lack of definition. While consistent and ongoing exercise can contribute to improving body contouring, one may wonder whether aesthetic treatments or body contouring therapies offer more promising results in reshaping the body.

Out of Shape Body

Loose skin can develop following a significant weight loss when the skin doesn’t have sufficient time to gradually contract, resulting in a loose, sagging appearance. Additionally, ageing can contribute to loose skin as collagen levels decline, leading to a loss of structural support. It’s important to note that loose skin is not fat tissue. Individuals with loose skin are not advised to pursue weight loss diets, as this can exacerbate the condition and potentially lead to weight regain.

Regardless of whether one is overweight or slender, loose and sagging skin can detract from our overall appearance, resulting in a lack of definition and curves. Achieving a firm body contour and tightening the skin requires meeting two essential goals:

  1. maintaining total body fat below 20%. 
  2. ensuring the body contains adequate muscle mass. By keeping body fat levels low, one can maintain a leaner appearance, while building muscle helps create a tight, firm body contour and diminishes the appearance of loose skin.

We can explore the factors contributing to loose skin or an out-of-shape body from two perspectives: fat accumulation and muscle loss due to aging.


  • Following significant weight loss, excess skin may persist due to decreased support, particularly if the weight loss occurs rapidly.
  • Obesity. Excessive body fat can result in bulges of fat protruding from the body, leading to an out-of-shape appearance.

Muscle (Age)

As we age or engage in insufficient physical activity, muscle mass tends to diminish, resulting in loose skin and an unshapely body.

  • Decreased muscle mass

Muscles are often referred to as the “second heart” due to their role in promoting blood circulation and metabolic rate. After reaching our 30s, muscle loss becomes gradual, underscoring the importance of preserving muscle mass and quality to prevent rapid skin sagging.

  • Decline in body protein with age

While our body composition typically includes 18% protein, this percentage gradually declines over time. Collagen, a crucial structural protein, provides support to the skin. Reductions in collagen levels result in decreased skin support, contributing to skin laxity. Loose skin is less capable of containing subcutaneous fat, leading to sagging and drooping of fatty tissue.

A:TriFX Radiofrequency (RF) Microneedling
B:Trilift DMSt™
C:TriPollar RadioFrequency
F:Herbal formulas